Historical Chronology

The history of codices that circulated throughout the Middle Ages in Friuli is interlaced with the history of the Patriarchate.

Year 500 circa. A privileged witness of the origins of the Aquileian Christianity is a codex of the gospels written around the year 500 and known as Evangeliarium Foroiuliense, which in the Carolingian age had been kept in the basilica dedicated to the Cantiani martyrs near Aquileia. The codex, devoid of the gospel according to Mark Marco, is nowadays kept at the National Archaeological Museum of Cividale del Friuli (Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteche, cod. CXXXVIII). A legend, which was soon to be spread over the whole Christian West, according to which Mark’s Gospel was the an autograph of the speller himself during his preaching in Aquileia, led to its extrapolation from the remaining codex in the twelfth century. As a matter of fact, the first item reported in the thirteenth-century inventory of the Aquileian cathedral is «liber beati Marci evangeliste, quem propria manu scripsit». Two quires of this gospel were given as a present by the patriarch Nicholas of Luxemburg [Nicolò di Lussemburgo] to emperor Charles IV in 1354 and they are still kept at Prague (Prague, Archiv Pražského hradu [Knihovna Metropolitní Kapitoly], Cim. 1); the remaining part of the gospel was brought to Venice as spoils of war in 1420 by the army that had conquered Friuli (Venice, Basilica di San Marco, Tesoro, 98).

554. After affirming the Byzantine dominium over Italy at the end of the Gothic War, Emperor Justinian extends the empire’s legislation to the peninsula. An articulated collection of Roman-Justinian juridical texts, including the Epitome Iuliani [collezione di testi giuridici romano-giustinianei, comprendente l’Epitome Iuliani], is kept in a ninth-century codex coming from Udine and nowadays kept at Leipzig (Lepzig, Universitätsbibliothek Albertina, Haenel 8 and 9).

568. Entry of the Lombards into Italy and foundation of the Duchy of Friuli. The history of the Lombard people, from their mythical Scandinavian origins to the death of Liutprand (744), is told by Paul the Deacon [Paolo Diacono] in his Historia Langobardorum. It is of a particular interest that in the city itself of Paul the Deacon [Paolo Diacono], a few years after its composition, his work of major interest for Friuli was probably copied (Cividale, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, cod. XXVIII). Another Historia Langobardorum codex, coming from Cividale, is kept at the Vatican Apostolic Library (Vat. Lat. 11256).

737. The patriarch of Aquileia Callistus [Callisto] moves the see of the patriarchate to Cividale. In the same year Ratchis becomes duke of Friuli. From the artistic and cultural viewpoint a period of particular splendour starts then for Cividale. Even though there are no direct evidences of the presence of an active scriptorium in the city, the hypothesis that the evangeliarium, codex Rehdigeranus, [evangeliario Rehdigerano] (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Depot. Breslau 5 [Rehd. 169]) was manufactured in this Friulian city is not to be disregarded. This codex was still kept at Aquileia in the fifteenth century. The Capitulare Evangeliorum, added in a pre-Caroline cursive either contemporary or little later than the gospel text script, allows to reconstruct the most relevant part of the liturgical year celebrated at Aquileia in the early Middle Ages.

776. Charlemagne suppresses the revolt of Hrodgaud, the last Lombard duke of Friuli: then the Carolingian age starts in this region. The History of Lombards, which is here represented by the two above mentioned codices of Cividale provenance (Cividale, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, cod. XXVIII; Vat. Lat. 11256), was written by Paul the Deacon [Paolo Diacono] the day after his stay in France (or even during it, according to others) with the aim to let the conquerors know and accept the cultural worth and the historical experience of his people. The III section collects other, either whole or fragmentary, witnesses of the Carolingian Age in Friuli. Among them on the margins of a codex of St. Jerome’s Commentary to Paul’s Epistles [Commento di san Girolamo alle epistole di Paolo] the names of two patriarchs emerge: Valpert [Valperto], patriarch of Aquileia between 874 e 900 circa, and Lupus II [Lupo II], in charge between 940 and 948-949 (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 953).

836. Eberhard [Everardo], the Frankish nobleman, Charles the Bald’s brother in law, takes over to ruling the Duchy of Friuli, which was to become later a March. Eberhard’s [Everardo] library is the provenance of a most celebrated Psalter [Salterio] which is nowadays kept at the Vatican Apostolic Library (Reg. lat. 11).

899. Beginning of the Hungarian invasions that were to devastate Friuli for about a century, and to sign a neat split from the previous period also as to the preservation documents and handwritten books.

1019. John IV [Giovanni IV], patriarch of Aquileia, dies on 19 July. John [Giovanni] was the first of a series of patriarchs reported in a Sacramentary [Sacramentario] manufactured at Reichenau in those same years and a few later arrived in Aquileia (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. Lit. 319). The Sacramentary [Sacramentario] commemorates also Poppo of the Otokars [Poppone degli Ottocari] (28. IX.1042), Gotebald [Goteboldo] (27.XII.1062), Ravengerius (18.II.1068), Sigeard [Sigeardo] (12.VII.1077).

1019-1042. Patriarchy of the Bavarian Poppo of the Otokars [Poppone degli Ottocari]. Poppo [Poppone] was one of the main accomplishers of the Ottonian politics in Italy. In 1020 he was in the retinue of pope Benedict VIII in Germany and stayed at Fulda, too, where he could maybe get two manuscripts once used in the cathedral of Aquileia and nowadays kept at Udine: the Evangelistary [Evangelistario] and Sacramentary of Fulda [Sacramentario fuldensi] (Udine, Archivio Capitolare, codd. 1 e 2). The Evangelistary [Evangelistario] had to play an important role, since the suffragan bishops of the Aquileian province used to promise their obedience to the patriarchs on this manuscript.

1031 July 13, Aquileia. Consecration of the Cathedral by patriarch Poppo [Poppone]. In the apses the patriarch is portrayed together with empress Gisela, emperor Conrad II and their son Henry III.

1042 September 28, Aquileia. Patriarch Poppo [Poppone] suddenly dies. Memory of his death is kept in the Sacramentary of Reichenau [Sacramentario di Reichenau] which was used in Aquileia in the eleventh century (Oxford, Bodleian Library Canon. Lit. 319).

1060 circa, Rosazzo. Foundation of the abbey. The Codex 73 of the Patriarchal Library of Udine, an eleventh-century Psalter-hymnal written at St. Paul in Lavant and given to the use of the abbey of Rosazzo, evidences the common origin of the two abbeys and the relation they have with the Spanheim family, future dukes of Carinthia.

1068. Election of the patriarch Sigeard of Sighardinger [Sigeardo dei Sigardinghi] († 1077). In the Oxford Sacramentary [Sacramentario di Oxford], the provenance of which is Aquileia (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. Lit. 319), the patriarch’s name is reported together with some members of his family.

1077 April 1 (?), Pavia. Henry IV bestows the county of Friuli upon patriarch Sigeard [Sigeardo] and the Aquileian church as a reward to the patriarch’s loyalty.

1086. Emperor Henry IV appoints Ulrich of Eppenstein [Ulrico di Eppenstein], from the family of the dukes of Carinthia, patriarch of Aquileia.

1099 July 15. Conquest of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem by the Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon and Raymond count of Toulouse. The event is reported in a note on margin of the Giant Bible of Cividale [Bibbia atlantica di Cividale] (Cividale del Friuli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteca, cod. I).

1119, Moggio. Consecration of the abbey church in the presence of patriarch Ulrich of Eppenstein [Ulrico di Eppenstein]. Part of the fund of handwritten books of the abbey is now kept at the Patriarchal Library of Udine; a lot of other manuscripts that had got into Matteo Luigi Canonici’s collection were later purchased by the Bodleian Library of Oxford.

1121 December 13. Death of Ulrich of Eppenstein [Ulrico di Eppenstein], patriarch of Aquileia.

1122-1129. Gerard [Gerardo] patriarch of Aquileia: his name appears on the margins of the Giant Bible belonging to the Chapter of Cividale [Bibbia atlantica di proprietà del Capitolo di Cividale] (Cividale del Friuli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteca, cod. I).

1131-1161. Pellegrino I of Povo [Pellegrino I di Povo Beseno], patriarch of Aquileia. His name appears in notes on the margins of various books: in particular in the Giant Bible of San Daniele [Bibbia atlantica di San Daniele del Friuli], where he is mentioned as neo-elected patriarch of Aquileia (San Daniele del Friuli, Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, 1) and in the Giant Bible of Cividale Bibbia atlantica di Cividale del Friuli (Cividale del Friuli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteca, cod. I). Some codices, which were manufactured in these decades, evidence the presence of a centre of book production connected the schools of the Chapter of Cividale (Cividale del Friuli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteca, codd. XXII, XXIII, LXVII).

1215, Aachen. Frederick II receives the imperial crown by the German princes.

1215-1216. The canon of Aquileia Tommasino da Cerchiara composes his Middle High German poem Der Wälsche Gast (The Romance Guest).

1216 circa, Admont. In the abbey scriptorium a Gradual [Graduale] is produced that is soon to be used in the Friulian abbey of Moggio (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. Lit. 340).

1218. Berthold of Andechs-Merania [Bertoldo di Andechs-Merania] († 1251) is elected patriarch of Aquileia. Berthold’s long patriarchy turns out to be a moment of particular relevance for the artistic production in the lands of the Patriarchate. Thanks to the patriarch two illuminated books of extraordinary importance got to Friuli: Egbert’s Psalter [Salterio di Egberto] produced in the scriptorium of Reichenau (Cividale, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, CXXXVI) and St. Elizabeth’s Psalter [Salterio di santa Elisabetta] produced at Reinhardsbrunn between 1201 and 1208, which is one of the first de luxe Psalter manufactured for the high lay aristocracy in a German milieu (Cividale, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, CXXXVII).

1220-1230 circa, Bologna. Around in these years the copy was made of the Decretum Gratiani codex, which belonged to Marsilius, a canon of Cividale, and is nowadays kept in that same city (Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteca, cod. V). It is here dealt with one of the Canonical Law fundamentals, present in the inventories of various canons of Aquileia, Cividale and Udine. Starting from the twelfth-century last decades a large number of clerics of the Patriarchate of Aquileia began to an increasingly extend to attend the great universities that were being established: not only Bologna, but also Paris and Oxford. Documents thereon are, among other things, the numerous evidences, just fragments in many cases, of scholastic texts circulating in Friuli in the late Middle Ages.

1232, Aquileia. Frederick II of Swabia, also a poet and courteous poetry promoter, meets his son Henry VII of Germany in the presence of the patriarch Berthold of Andechs-Merania [Bertoldo di Andechs-Merania]: a venue that turns out to be political and literary milieu, providing the plausible presence of poets and minnesänger in their retinue.

1234-1235, Aquileia. At the end of the Swabish Landfriede a German hand copies a fragment of the love song Resplendiente stella de albur by Giacomino Pugliese (Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, C 88, f. Iv), which is to be considered the oldest written witness of the Sicilian poetic school.

1250 December 13. Frederick II’s death.

1251 May 23. Death of the patriarch Berthold of Andechs-Merania [Bertoldo di Andechs-Merania].

1252. Gregorio di Montelongo has his entry in the Patriarchate. The brief and belated Provencal season is in Friuli to be referred to the person of Gregorio di Montelongo, the energetic patriarch who set out a political and cultural turning point since his arrival in Aquileia in 1252, with his looking at Rome and the Guelph issues after centuries of the Patriarchate’s alignment with the Ghibelline Germanic world.

1269 September 8, Cividale. Death of the patriarch Gregorio di Montelongo.

1270, Cividale. Anonymous, [Planh] en mort d’En Joan de Cucanh: an Occitan lyric of circumstance in memory of Giovanni di Cucagna written and set to music by an anonymous minstrel bound to the court of the patriarch Gregorio di Montelongo (Cividale del Friuli, Archivio Capitolare, 1484, Capitolo, San Marco di Rubignacco).

1286, Aquileia. In around this year a Bible in five volumes [Bibbia in cinque volumi] was manufactured for the Chapter, the illuminated initials of which reveal an unequivocal connection with the contemporary Venetian miniature (Gorizia, Biblioteca del Seminario Teologico, 4).

1300. Boniface VIII calls the first jubilee.

1301 February 19, Udine. Patriarch Pietro da Ferentino dies and is buried in the parish church of the castle of Udine. A Psalter and hymnal of Paduan provenance used in that same parish church records the patriarch’s testament provisions (Udine, Biblioteca arcivescovile, cod. 92).

1334. Bertrand of Saint-Geniès [Bertrand de Saint-Geniès] († 1350) is elected patriarch of Aquileia. His activity in favour of the patriarchate and Friuli was intense on a political, religious and cultural level. Some French books written by Friulian authors, such as the Itinerarium by Odorico da Pordenone and the Compilatio historiarum totius Bibliae by Giovanni da Mortegliano, evidence an European interest towards some books produced in Friuli in this period.

1348-1349, Udine. Vitale da Bologna works on the frescoes of the cathedral. The decoration of a Gradual [Graduale], which was manufactured for the chapter of Udine, has been put in relation to the presence of the master of Bologna in the city (ACU, 29, 25, 23 e 19).

1350 June, 6. Murder of Bertrand of Saint-Geniès [Bertrando da Saint-Geniès], patriarch of Aquileia. The fly-leaf of a Lectionary of the Abbey of Moggio, nowadays kept at the Patriarchal Library of Udine, reports memory of his murder (Biblioteca patriarcale, cod. 50).

1354 October 14, Udine. On the occasion of Charles IV of Luxembourg’s visit to the city, his brother Nicholas patriarch [Nicolò patriarca] of Aquileia gives the emperor two gatherings of St. Mark’s ‘autographic’ Gospel [vangelo “autografo” di san Marco]. (Prague, Archiv Pražského hradu [Knihovna Metropolitní Kapitoly], Cim. 1).

1378. The Schism of the Western Church (1378-1417) has its beginning with a double election to the pontifical throne.

1381. Philippe dAlençon, patriarch of Aquileia (1381-1387).

1381, Bologna. Giovanni of q. Andrea of Gemona, student at Bologna, copies a manuscript by Valerius Maximus [manoscritto di Valerio Massimo] (Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. Lat. 1918).

1399, Cividale. A student of the school of Cividale, whose master was Gentile Belloli from Ravenna, copies a codex of Seneca’s Tragedies [Tragedie di Seneca] that is nowadays kept at Oxford (Bodleian Library, Canon. Class. Lat. 88).

1402, Bologna. A Friulian student, Giovanni Berto, copies a codex of Statius’ Thebais [Tebaide di Stazio] with a splendid pomp display. (Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Arch. Cap. S. Pietro H. 15).

1402 February 27. Pope Boniface IX (Perrino Tomacelli) awards Antonio Pancera of Portogruaro the patriarchate of Aquileia.

1408 June 13, Lucca. Gregory XII dismisses patriarch Pancera.

1409 March. Gregory XII notifies the appointment of Antonio da Ponte, former bishop of Concordia, to new patriarch.

1409. Pope Gregory XII calls an ecumenical council at Cividale for the reunion of the Church torn by the schism. Pope Gregory’s brief presence is witnessed by some fragments of a scroll with the list of papal scriptores and other Ars Nova fragments composed by the masters of papal cappella Renzo da Pontecorvo, Filippotto da Caserta and Antonio called Zachara da Teramo (Udine, Archivio di Stato, fragments 000).

1411 June 5. John XXIII appoints Antonio Pancera to cardinal, who will definitely leave Friuli after a few months upon his refusal of the patriarchate.

1411 November. Emperor Sigismund’s troops invade Friuli.

1412 July 6, Aquileia. Louis of Teck [Ludovico di Teck] is elected patriarch with the emperor’s support. In the immediately following years some liturgical codices were written and illuminated for him in the castle of Udine, two of which are now kept at the Patriarchal Library of Udine (Biblioteca patriarcale, codd. 93 e 94).

1414, Padua. Francesco Squarani da Venzone, at the time student, copies some school texts in the house of the Venetian canonist Domenico da Ponte. (Treviso, Biblioteca Comunale, 156).

1417, Constance. Election of Martin V (Oddone Colonna) and end of the Western Schism.

1417-1418, Constance. Antonio Pancera, former patriarch of Aquileia, gathers a wide collection of documents (Codex diplomaticus) so as to witness his struggles for the defence of the Patriarchate and interventions in the Church general politics (S. Daniele del Friuli, Biblioteca civica Guarneriana, Guarneriano 220).

1419. Antonio Baldana “Utinensis legum studens” composes his De magno schismate, and dedicates it to Martin V (Parma, Biblioteca Palatina, cod. 1194). The work, which is written in prose and verses in a ‘stilus multiformis’ with a thirty of pen-drawn and water-coloured sketches accompanying the text, narrates the main events of the Western Schism until the election of Martin V and the first two years of his pontificate.

1420 June 6, Udine. Venetian troops enter into the city and, as a matter of fact, they put an end to the patriarchal State.

1420 June 24, Venice. St. Mark’s Gospel [vangelo di Marco] autograph, taken away from Aquileia, is with solemnity transferred into the treasure of the St. Mark’s basilica (Venice, Tesoro della Basilica di San Marco).

1426. The profound religious crisis and the expectations of renewal characterising this period find a counterpart in a work by Telesforo da Cosenza, a Joachimite, that narrates about the Anti-Christ’s advent, the waiting for an angelic Pope and the division of the ecclesiastical history into subsequent schisms. A copy of this Libellus written in 1426 is kept at San Daniele del Friuli (Biblioteca Guarneriana, cod. 264).

1427-1431, Rome. Guarnerio d’Artegna stays at San Biagio della Pagnotta in the residence of Antonio Pancera, as his family fellow.

1431 July 3, Rome. Death of the cardinal Antonio Pancera. From the patriarch’s heirs Guarnerio d’Artegna will later purchase some splendid codices of the cardinal’s book collection, among which the splendid ‘Byzantine’ Bible [Bibbia”bizantina”], and Peter Lombard’s Sententiae [Sentenze di Pietro Lombardo] which had been written upon cardinal Ardizzone Rivoltella’s patronage (San Daniele del Friuli, Biblioteca Guarneriana, codd. 3 e 42)

1431 July 23, Basel. Opening of the council.

1434 September 29, Basel. The patriarch of Aquileia Louis of Teck [Ludovico di Teck] has a ‘monitorium’ affixed on the doors of Basel cathedral against the Republic of Venice which is threatened with excommunication and interdict, if it does not give Friuli and Istria back to the patriarch within short time.

1435 December 23, Basel. The council excommunicates the doge and the Venetian rulers and lays the city under interdict.

1436 January 10, Aquileia. Guarnerio d’Artegna, who has become canon of Aquileia, completes a codex of Plautus’ Comedies [Commedie di Plauto] (Biblioteca Guarneriana, cod. 54).

1437. Eugene IV closes the council of Basel. Death of the emperor Sigismund.

1438. The council is moved to Ferrara (5 April-28 December), and then to Florence.

1438-1439. Council of Ferrara-Florence. Among the participants there are several, ecclesiastic and lay, Friulian persons such as Giacomo da Udine and Guarnerio d’Artegna. Here in the first day when the reunion of the Western and Eastern Churches was ratified (6 July 1439) Giacomo subscribes his copy of a Lactantius’ codex [codice di Lattanzio] (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 2968).

1439 August 19, Basel. The patriarch Louis of Teck [Ludovico di Teck] dies in a plague epidemy.

1439 December 19, Florence. Pope Eugene IV (Gabriele Condulmer) appoints Ludovico Trevisan patriarch of Aquileia (1439-1465).

1439, Lavariano (Udine). Nicolò di Giorgio of San Vito al Tagliamento, canon of Udine and parish priest of Lavariano, copies a collection of Cicero’s work (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod. 61) for Guarnerio. Five of the seven codices copied by Nicolò for Guarnerio are explicitly dated at Lavariano.

1440 circa, Florence. Collection of Plutarch’s Parallel Lives [Vite parallelae di Plutarco], in the Latin version, copied for Ludovico Trevisan, patriarch of Aquileia (Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Pal. Lat. 918).

1440 February 29, Udine. Giovanni Fontana, physician and architect, ends his treatise De trigonio balistario and dedicates it to Domenico Bragadin, mathematics lecturer at St. Marks’ School of Venice (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. Misc. 47). The treatise describes a tool for trigonometric measuring that can be considered as a sextant prototype.

1441, Florence. During the council the canon Giacomo da Udine copies a Cicero’s codex [codice di Cicerone] that he will then leave to St. Francis’ convent of Udine. The codex will be subject to a long series of passing of property before it gets the Bodleian Library, where it is nowadays kept (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bywater Add. 1).

1441, February 2, Udine. Guarnerio d’Artegna, who has become canon of Udine, completes a copy of Cicero’s De officiis [De officiis di Cicerone] (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod. 69).

1442, Udine. Guarnerio d’Artegna, canon of Udine, copyist of codex with texts of Florus and Livy (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod, 71).

1442, Aquileia. Giacomo da Udine copies a codex by Boethius, currently Paris, Arsenal, 964.

1445 June 10, Venice. Signing of the agreement that puts an end to the dispute between the patriarch of Aquileia and the Republic. The patriarch is given ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Patriarchate and feudal jurisdiction over the city of Aquileia and the castles of San Vito al Tagliamento and San Daniele del Friuli.

1446-1454. Guarnerio d’Artegna is appointed deputy vicar of the patriarch of Aquileia.

1448 July-1449 June. Francesco Barbaro, ‘luogotenente’ (general Governor) of the Patria del Friuli.

1448-1452. Some copyists, student-notaries at the school of Udine, copy a miscellaneous collection of different works that had wide spread in the fifteenth-century Humanism for Guarnerio (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod, 102).

1450, Udine. Giovanni Belgrado, son to Antonio decretorum doctor, copies some humanistic texts at the school of Giovanni da Spilimbergo (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod. 228).

1450. The exemplar of Augustine’s De Civitate Dei [De civitate Dei di Agostino], which is worked out upon the patronage of the patriarchal vicar Guarnerio d’Artegna, for the first time shows the typical ‘tied neck-knot’ decoration that can be found in other codices of Guarnerio’s collection written in this period (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod. 8)

1451. Suppression of the Patriarchy of Grado and transfer of the patriarchal see of Grado to Venice.

1453-1456, Udine. Giovanni Belgrado, a notary student at the school of Udine, makes a copy of Leonardo Bruni’s De bello Italico adversus Gothos (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. Misc. 551) for Guarnerio d’Artegna.

1456, Udine. Battista da Cingoli, a professional copyist at Guarnerio’s service, copies a Virgil’s codex for Girolamo Barbarigo, ‘luogotenente’ (general Governor) of the Patria del Friuli (Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Pal. lat. 39).

1456. Guarnerio d’Artegna, no-longer vicar of the patriarch, definitely moves his residence from Udine to San Daniele del Friuli, where he has become parish priest. On such occasion he draws out the first inventory of his library.

1456, San Daniele del Friuli. Battista da Cingoli copies Plinius’ Naturalis Historia [Naturalis Historia di Plinio] for Guarnerio (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Par. lat. 9325). In the same years (1456-1461) Nicolò de Collibus, a young notary-student at Udine, copies Livy’s Histories [Storie di Tito Livio] (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 8954) and twelve Plautus’ ‘New’ comedies [commedie ‘nuove’ di Plauto], both copies committed by Guarnerio (Biblioteca Civica Guarneriana, cod. 53).

1458, Udine. The Minor Observants of the convent of St. Francesco della Vigna are asked to give back the brotherhood of St. Maria del Castello the codices they were given by the patriarch Louis of Teck [Ludovico di Teck].

1459-1460 circa. The Paduan calligrapher, Bartolomeo Sanvito (1435-1511), who had among his clients, beyond the Gonzaga, also Marcantonio Morosini of Venice and the patriarch of Aquileia Ludovico Trevisan, copies the vernacular Italian translation of the First decade of Livy’s Histories prima decade delle Storie di Tito Livio (Udine, Seminario Arcivescovile, Biblioteca ‘P. Bertolla’, Fondo Cernazai 421).

1461, Gemona. A student at the school of master Nicolò di Iacopo of San Daniele copies Boethius’ De consolatione philosophiae (Biblioteca civica Guarneriana, cod. 125).

1462. Creation of the diocese of Ljubljana that incorporates part of the territory previously belonging to the patriarchate of Aquileia.

1466 October 10, San Daniele del Friuli. Death of Guarnerio d’Artegna who leaves to the church of St. Michele «all the books he found himself to have with obligation to the church to build an honest and decent place for a library and there to put all the said books, and tie them with chains and keep them»1.

1466, Cividale del Friuli. A man of Cividale, Nicolò Claricini senior, copies a codex of the Dante’s Comedy (Padova, Biblioteca Civica, C. M. 937).

1471-1487. Pietro Barozzi dedicates his De ratione bene moriendi to Marco Barbo, cardinal of St. Mark and patriarch of Aquileia (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lyell 81).

1494-1497. Dedicatory copy of Quintius Emilianus Cimbriacus’ Carmina [Carmina di Quinto Emiliano Cimbriaco] to the patriarch Nicolò Donà (New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Marston 161).

1499. Last Turkish incursion into Friuli, which caused around 10.000 victims.

1501. Giovanni de Cramariis accomplishes one of his most sumptuous Choir books of Spilimbergo [libri corali di Spilimbergo] (Spilimbergo, Archivio parrocchiale, 3). The whole set of choir books of the cathedral was carried out between 1494 and 1507.

1 «Tutti i suoi libri che si ritrovava havere con obligo alla chiesa di far fabricare il loco honesto et condecente una libraria, et in quella tutti l’istessi libri ponere, con sue catene ligati et ivi conservarli».

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